Long exposure photography, in simple terms, is keeping shutter open for long duration. This can produce extraordinary results in night photography and landscape photography.
The basic requirement is a tripod or some stable base. You can even use your car top also. The idea is to keep the camera stationary while shutter is open.
Other aspects to be kept in mind is to use low ISO to reduce noise or grains in the picture and aperture between f/9 to f/22.
The picture was taken during night on a road with moving cars giving the effect of street on fire due to blurring effect of lights of moving cars ( Exposure 30 sec, ISo – 100 and aperture – f/11).
This dog was having a good time in water and suddenly he saw another dog in his territory and in a flash he was after him making splash in the water.
The pigeon hidden behind the wings on the top of this photograph looks similar to a gymnast athlete performing on a stage.